Anthrax

Reviewed 06/2018
 


BASICS

DESCRIPTION

  • A highly infectious disease caused by the bacteria Bacillus anthracis that primarily infects ruminant animals (cows, goats, and sheep). Cutaneous (95% of United States cases), inhala...

DIAGNOSIS

  • Cutaneous: Incubation period is brief (1 day); begins as a pruritic spot, followed by a red-brown papule that enlarges with peripheral erythema, vesiculation, and induration. This is followe...

TREATMENT

GENERAL MEASURES

  • Although inhalational and GI anthrax have not been shown to spread from person to person, universal precautions should still be enforced (3,5)[C].

  • Avoid contact with the wound...

ONGOING CARE

FOLLOW-UP RECOMMENDATIONS

Patient Monitoring

Monitor for 60 days to ensure treatment is completed. 

PROGNOSIS

  • Cutaneous: death in 5–20% of untreated cases, but the case fatality rate is <1...

REFERENCES

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Anthrax. https://www.cdc.gov/anthrax/index.html. Accessed March 13, 2018.
Wright JG, Quinn CP, Shadomy S, et al; for Centers for Disease Control...

ADDITIONAL READING

  • Kayabas U, Karahocagil MK, Ozkurt Z, et al. Naturally occurring cutaneous anthrax: antibiotic treatment and outcome. Chemotherapy.  2012;58(1):34–43.

  • Marano N, Plikaytis BD, Mar...

CODES

ICD10

  • A22.9 Anthrax, unspecified

  • A22.0 Cutaneous anthrax

  • A22.1 Pulmonary anthrax

  • A22.2 Gastrointestinal anthrax

  • A22.7 Anthrax sepsis

  • A22.8 Other forms of anthrax

ICD9

  • 022.9 Anthrax, unspecified

  • 022.0 Cut...

CLINICAL PEARLS

  • Inhalational anthrax is rare in the United States and requires a high degree of clinical suspicion for diagnosis. If no occupational exposures to animal hides or products, it should be...

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