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Atelectasis

Jennifer Duke, MD, Adrian DaSilva-DeAbreu, MD and Raymundo A. Quintana, MD Reviewed 06/2018
 


BASICS

DESCRIPTION

  • Incomplete expansion of lung tissue with resultant loss of lung volume and function, leading to impaired airway mucus clearance

  • Broadly categorized as:

    • Obstructive: blockage within a...

DIAGNOSIS

HISTORY

  • Frequently asymptomatic

  • Tachypnea and sudden-onset dyspnea

  • Nonproductive cough

  • Pleuritic pain on affected side

  • History of smoking, COPD, pulmonary insufficiency, exposure to radiation, as...

TREATMENT

GENERAL MEASURES

  • Prevention following surgery or general anesthesia using PEEP (3)[C]

  • Treat the underlying cause.

  • Ensure patient is lying on the unaffected side to promote drainage:

    • Maximize m...

ONGOING CARE

FOLLOW UP RECOMMENDATIONS

Patient Monitoring

  • Depends on underlying cause and comorbidities

  • In uncomplicated cases of atelectasis associated with asthma or infection, outpatient monitoring is...

REFERENCES

1
1 Restrepo RD, Braverman J. Current challenges in the recognition, prevention and treatment of perioperative pulmonary atelectasis. Expert Rev Respir Med.  2015;9(1):97–107. {L-End} ...

ADDITIONAL READING

  • Brower RG. Consequences of bed rest. Crit Care Med.  2009;37(Suppl 10):S422–S428. {L-End} {L-End} [View Abstract on OvidMedline]

  • Ferreyra G, Long Y, Ranieri VM. Respiratory c...

CODES

ICD10

J98.11 Atelectasis 

ICD9

518.0 Pulmonary collapse 

SNOMED

  • 46621007 Atelectasis (disorder)

  • 58525007 Obstructive atelectasis

  • 196143003 postoperative atelectasis (disorder)

  • 16537000 compression atele...

CLINICAL PEARLS

  • No strong clinical evidence supports atelectasis as an early cause of postoperative fever.

  • Anesthesia-induced atelectasis occurs in almost all anesthetized patients.

  • Bronchogenic carcino...

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