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Balanitis Xerotica Obliterans (Lichen Sclerosus of Penis)

Pamela Ellsworth, MD Reviewed 06/2018
 


BASICS

The International Society for the Study of Vulvar Disease recommends use of the term “lichen sclerosus” (LS) for males and females (1). 

DESCRIPTION

  • Balanitis xerotica obliterans (BXO) is the his...

DIAGNOSIS

HISTORY

  • Because BXO occurs almost exclusively in uncircumcised males and less commonly in those who underwent a childhood circumcision, a history of circumcision and timing of circumcision sh...

TREATMENT

  • Currently, there is no curative treatment. The focus of treatment is on limiting skin involvement with disease, relieving symptoms, and preventing anatomic changes such as urethral stricture...

ONGOING CARE

FOLLOW-UP RECOMMENDATIONS

Due to the risk of development of SCC, even adequately treated patients require long-term follow-up. Some suggest yearly evaluation once the disease has been adeq...

REFERENCES

1
Stewart L, McCammon K, Metro M, et al. SIU/ICUD consultation on urethral strictures: anterior urethra-lichen sclerosus. Urology.  2014;83(Suppl 3):S27–S30. {L-End} [View Abstract on ...

ADDITIONAL READING

  • Aidé S, Lattario FR, Almeida G, et al. Epstein-Barr virus and human papillomavirus infection in vulvar lichen sclerosus. J Low Genit Tract Dis.  2010;14(4):319–322.

  • Bunker CB, E...

CODES

ICD10

N48.0 Leukoplakia of penis 

ICD9

  • 607.81 Balanitis xerotica obliterans

  • 607.0 Leukoplakia of penis

SNOMED

  • 198033005 Balanitis xerotica obliterans

  • 700082001 Lichen sclerosus of penis (disorder)

CLINICAL PEARLS

  • BXO is the male equivalent of LS atrophicus in females.

  • Treatment is aimed at the relief of symptoms and prevention of disease progression.

  • Topical steroid therapy is the first-line ther...

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