Skip to main content

Bites, Animal and Human

Reviewed 06/2018
 


BASICS

DESCRIPTION

  • Bite rates vary by species: dogs (60–90%), cats (5–20%), rodents (2–3%), humans (2–3%), and rarely other animals, including snakes

  • System(s) affected: potentially any

Pediatric Conside...

DIAGNOSIS

HISTORY

  • Detailed history of the incident (provoked or unprovoked); type/breed of animal; vaccine status

  • Site of the bite

  • Geographic setting

  • Underlying medical history

PHYSICAL EXAM

  • Dog bites (60–9...

TREATMENT

GENERAL MEASURES

  • Complete bite report according to local policy

  • Elevate the injured extremity to prevent swelling.

  • Contact local health department to determine the prevalence of rabies in the i...

ONGOING CARE

FOLLOW UP RECOMMENDATIONS

Patient Monitoring

  • Recheck for infection in 24 to 48 hours.

  • Daily follow-up for infections to ensure resolution.

  • Base revisions of antibiotic therapy on culture resu...

REFERENCES

1
1 Aziz H, Rhee P, Pandit V, et al. The current concepts in management of animal (dog, cat, snake, scorpion) and human bite wounds. J Trauma Acute Care Surg.  2015;78(3):641–648. {L-En...

ADDITIONAL READING

  • Okonkwo U, Changulani M, Moonot P. Animal bites: practical tips for effective management. J Emerg Nurs.  2008;34(3):225–226. {L-End} {L-End} [View Abstract on OvidMedline]

  • Ri...

SEE ALSO

Bartonella Infections; Cellulitis; Rabies; Snake Envenomation 

CODES

ICD10

  • S61.459A Open bite of unspecified hand, initial encounter

  • S01.85XA Open bite of other part of head, initial encounter

  • S20.97XA Other superficial bite of unspecified parts of thorax, initial e...

CLINICAL PEARLS

  • Wound cleansing, débridement, and culture are essential. Most wounds should be left open.

  • Antibiotic prophylaxis is recommended for human bites and high-risk wounds.

  • Consider rabies and ...

Subscribe to Access Full Content

Sign Up for a 10-Day Free Trial

Sign up for a 10-day FREE Trial now and receive full access to all content.

 
×