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Breastfeeding

Angelia Leipelt, BA, IBCLC, ICCE, CLE and Ronald G. Chambers, Jr., MD, FAAFP Reviewed 06/2018
 


BASICS

  • Breastfeeding is the natural process of feeding human milk directly from the breast.

  • Breast milk is the preferred nutritional source and the normal and physiologic way to feed all newborns and i...

DIAGNOSIS

PHYSICAL EXAM

Examine breasts, ideally during pregnancy, looking for scars, lumps, or flat/inverted nipples. Confirm history of infertility, endocrine disorders, breast and hormonal pathology...

TREATMENT

GENERAL MEASURES

Breastfeeding initiation 
  • Initiate breastfeeding immediately after birth, ideally placing the infant on mother’s chest skin-to-skin in first hour (1,5)[A].

  • Mother placed in a c...

ONGOING CARE

FOLLOW UP RECOMMENDATIONS

See mother and baby within a few days of hospital discharge, especially if first time breastfeeding. 
  • Risk factors for suboptimal initiation

    • Breast surgery, espec...

REFERENCES

1
1 Johnston M, Landers S, Noble L, et al. Breastfeeding and the use of human milk. Pediatrics.  2012;129(3):e827–e841. {L-End} {L-End} [View Abstract on OvidMedline]
2
2 Centers for D...

ADDITIONAL READING

  • American Academy of Pediatrics, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Breastfeeding Handbook for Physicians. 2nd ed. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pedi...

CODES

ICD10

Z39.1 Encounter for care and examination of lactating mother 

ICD9

V24.1 Postpartum care and examination of lactating mother 

SNOMED

69840006 normal breast feeding (finding) 

CLINICAL PEARLS

  • Women who do not receive support are at risk for shorter durations of breastfeeding.

  • Virtually all mothers can breastfeed, provided they have accurate information, and the support of th...

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