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Dehydration

Tu Dan Nguyen, MD Reviewed 06/2018
 


BASICS

DESCRIPTION

  • A state of negative fluid balance; strictly defined as free water deficiency

  • The two types of dehydration:

    • Water loss

    • Salt and water loss (combination of dehydration and hypovolemia)

EPIDEMIOLOGY

DIAGNOSIS

Calculate percent dehydration = (preillness weight − illness weight)/preillness weight × 100. Supplement this along with the ongoing fluid loss. 

HISTORY

  • Fever

  • Intake (including description and...

TREATMENT

MEDICATION

First Line

  • Oral rehydration is the first-line treatment in dehydrated children. If this is unsuccessful, use IV rehydration. If IV unobtainable, nasogastric (NG) or intraosseous (IO...

ONGOING CARE

FOLLOW UP RECOMMENDATIONS

Activity as tolerated 
  • If mild to moderate dehydration, the patient may be mobile without restrictions, although watch for orthostasis/falls.

  • If moderate to severe ...

REFERENCES

1 Thomas DR, Cote TR, Lawhorne L, et al; for Dehydration Council. Understanding clinical dehydration and its treatment. J Am Med Dir Assoc.  2008;9(5):292–301.  [View Abstract]
2 Lan...

SEE ALSO

Oral Rehydration 

CODES

ICD10

  • E86.0 Dehydration

  • E87.1 Hypo-osmolality and hyponatremia

  • E86.1 Hypovolemia

ICD9

  • 276.51 Dehydration

  • 276.1 Hyposmolality and/or hyponatremia

  • 276.52 Hypovolemia

SNOMED

  • 34095006 dehydration (disorder)

  • 8...

CLINICAL PEARLS

  • Dehydration is the result of a negative fluid balance and is a common cause of hospitalization in both children and the elderly.

  • Begin by assessing the level of dehydration, determining...

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