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Encephalitis, Viral

Forest W. Arnold, MSc, DO, FIDSA Reviewed 06/2018
 


BASICS

DESCRIPTION

  • Inflammation of the meninges and brain associated with clinical evidence of neurologic dysfunction

  • System(s) affected: nervous

  • Synonym(s): meningoencephalitis

EPIDEMIOLOGY

Incidence

3.5 t...

DIAGNOSIS

  • Major and minor diagnostic criteria have been proposed for probable and confirmed encephalitis of infectious or autoimmune etiology.

  • Assess epidemiologic risk factors in all cases of encephal...

TREATMENT

  • Many patients require intensive care.

  • In general, empiric therapy with acyclovir is appropriate in cases of suspected encephalitis while awaiting formal diagnosis (1)[A].

  • Combine with therapy ...

ONGOING CARE

FOLLOW-UP RECOMMENDATIONS

  • Postencephalitis sequelae are primarily neurologic; guide follow-up according to clinical condition (e.g., anticonvulsants for seizures).

  • Physical therapy may be n...

REFERENCES

1
Tunkel AR, Glaser CA, Bloch KC, et al. The management of encephalitis: clinical practice guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis.  2008;47(3):303–327...

ADDITIONAL READING

  • Pandey S, Rathore C, Michael BD. Antiepileptic drugs for the primary and secondary prevention of seizures in viral encephalitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev.  2014;(10):CD010247...

CODES

ICD10

  • A86 Unspecified viral encephalitis

  • A85.2 Arthropod-borne viral encephalitis, unspecified

  • A84.9 Tick-borne viral encephalitis, unspecified

  • A83.9 Mosquito-borne viral encephalitis, unspecified

ICD9

CLINICAL PEARLS

  • Patients with suspected encephalitis should have MRI and CSF analysis (using PCR) unless otherwise contraindicated.

  • Preventive measures include protective clothing, vector control, and ...

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