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Gingivitis

Sheila O. Stille, DMD and Hugh Silk, MD, MPH, FAAFP Reviewed 06/2018
 


BASICS

DESCRIPTION

Gingivitis is a reversible form of inflammation of the gingiva. It is a mild form of periodontal disease. Classification includes the following: 
  • Plaque-induced

  • Not plaque-induced (bac...

DIAGNOSIS

HISTORY

  • Gingival erythema, edema, and bleeding

  • Gingiva is tender to touch but otherwise painless.

  • Bleeding of gingiva when brushing, flossing, or eating

  • Inquire about HIV risk, pregnancy, nutrit...

TREATMENT

GENERAL MEASURES

  • Stop any contributing medications.

  • Remove irritating factors (plaque, calculus, faulty dental restorations, or partial dentures).

  • Good oral hygiene (see “General Prevention”)

  • Re...

ONGOING CARE

FOLLOW UP RECOMMENDATIONS

  • Outpatient

  • No restrictions

Patient Monitoring

Until clear; dental follow-up for continued cleanings and secondary prevention 

DIET

  • Well-balanced diet that includes fru...

REFERENCES

1
Weatherspoon DJ, Borrell LN, Johnson CW, et al. Racial and ethnic differences in self-reported periodontal disease in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Oral Health Prev Den...

ADDITIONAL READING

  • James P, Worthington HV, Parnell C, et al. Chlorhexidine mouthrinse as an adjunctive treatment for gingival health. Cochrane Database Syst Rev.  2017;(3):CD008676. [View Abstr...

SEE ALSO

  • Dental Infection; Glossitis

  • Algorithm: Bleeding Gums

CODES

ICD10

  • K05.10 Chronic gingivitis, plaque induced

  • K05.11 Chronic gingivitis, non-plaque induced

  • K05.00 Acute gingivitis, plaque induced

  • K05.01 Acute gingivitis, non-plaque induced

  • A69.1 Other Vincent’s...

CLINICAL PEARLS

  • Gingivitis may be prevented and treated with regular dental cleanings, good oral hygiene, and use of certain mouth rinses including chlorhexidine.

  • Untreated, gingivitis may progress to ...

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