Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Pediatric

Reviewed 06/2017



  • Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) results from a block in differentiation and unregulated proliferation of myeloid progenitor cells.

  • AML is classified according to the World Health Organiz...



Children with AML can present with very few symptoms or with life-threatening sepsis or hemorrhage. Common symptoms include the following: 
  • Fever: 30–40%

  • Pallor: 25%

  • Weight loss/anorexia...



  • Patients are treated with 6–9 months of intensive chemotherapy given in cycles.

  • The most effective drugs for remission induction in AML combine anthracyclines (e.g., doxorubicin, da...

Ongoing Care

Follow-up Recommendations

Patient Monitoring

  • Blood counts monthly for 1st year, every 4 months for the 2nd year, and every 6 months thereafter

  • Liver and kidney function tests every 3–6 month...

Additional Reading

  • Creutzig  U, van den Heuvel-Eibrink  M, Gibson  B, et al. Diagnosis and management of acute myeloid leukemia in children and adolescents: recommendations from an international exper...



  • 205 Acute myeloid leukemia, without mention of having achieved remission

  • 205.01 Acute myeloid leukemia, in remission

  • 205.02 Acute myeloid leukemia, in relapse


  • C92.00 Acute myeloblastic le...


  • Q: Is an indwelling line required for therapy?

  • A: Always

  • Q: Are repeated hospitalizations likely?

  • A: Repeated hospitalizations are needed for chemotherapy and infectious complications.

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