Anthrax, Pediatric

Andrew P. Steenhoff Reviewed 06/2017
 


Basics

Description

Bacillus anthracis is a spore-forming, gram-positive rod that can cause acute infection (anthrax) in humans and animals. 

Epidemiology

  • Anthrax is primarily zoonotic. Most naturally acq...

Diagnosis

History

  • Inhalational anthrax

    • Clinical presentation is a 2-stage illness.

    • Initial symptoms are nonspecific and last 1–3 days. They include low-grade fever, dry cough, headache, vomiting, chills,...

Treatment

Medication

  • Postexposure prophylaxis

    • Ciprofloxacin 15 mg/kg (up to 500 mg) ordoxycycline 2.2 mg/kg (up to 100 mg) or levofloxacin 8 mg/kg (up to 250 mg) PO b.i.d. for 60 days.

    • Pediatric: Use cip...

Ongoing Care

Prognosis

  • Inhalational anthrax

    • Case fatality rates were previously estimated to be >85% after symptoms develop. However, early use of appropriate antibiotic therapy appears to improve su...

Additional Reading

  • Akbayram  S, Dogan  M, Akgun  C, et al. Clinical findings in children with cutaneous anthrax in Eastern Turkey. Pediatr Dermatol.  2010;27(6):600–606. [View Abstract]

  • Alexander ...

Codes

ICD09

  • 022.9 Anthrax, unspecified

  • 022.0 Cutaneous anthrax

  • 022.1 Pulmonary anthrax

  • 022.2 Gastrointestinal anthrax

  • 022.3 Anthrax septicemia

  • 022.8 Other specified manifestations of anthrax

ICD10

  • A22.9 Anthr...

FAQ

  • Q: Does the government have a plan in place if there were mass exposure to anthrax?

  • A: Yes. Under emergency plans, the federal government would ship appropriate antibiotics from its stockpile to wh...

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