Hydrocephalus, Pediatric

Rebecca A. Dorner, MD, Shenandoah Robinson, MD and Vera Joanna Burton, MD, PhD Reviewed 10/2018
 


BASICS

DESCRIPTION

  • Active distension of the ventricular system resulting from inadequate passage of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) from its point of production to point of absorption

  • CSF compartment progre...

DIAGNOSIS

PHYSICAL EXAM

  • Prenatally diagnosed

    • Hydrocephalus may be diagnosed on prenatal ultrasound; when encountered on ultrasound subsequent fetal MRI can help to identify additional brain/spinal cord ...

TREATMENT

ADDITIONAL THERAPIES

Temporary treatment options (to be done with neurosurgery/neurology guidance) 

ONGOING CARE

FOLLOW-UP RECOMMENDATIONS

  • When etiology of macrocephaly is unclear, it is important to follow children closely:

    • NICU patients should have weekly OFCs at baseline and more frequent measureme...

ADDITIONAL READING

  • Boyle TP, Nigrovic LE. Radiographic evaluation of pediatric cerebrospinal fluid shunt malfunction in the emergency setting. Pediatr Emerg Care.  2015;31(6):435–440. [View Abstr...

CODES

ICD9

  • 331.4 Obstructive hydrocephalus

  • 331.3 Communicating hydrocephalus

  • 742.3 Congenital hydrocephalus

  • 331.5 Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH)

ICD10

  • G91.9 Hydrocephalus, unspecified

  • G91.0 ...

FAQ

  • Q: When does an infant need a head ultrasound?

  • A: Any infant whose OFC increases by more than a quartile on the growth chart or >2 cm/week, needs a head ultrasound. Preterm infants below a certa...

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