Tissue damage caused by cold temperature exposure
Tissue damage results from:
Direct cell damage: Intracellular ice crystal formation
Indirect cell damage: Extracellular ice c...
Extremities (fingers, toes) and head (ears, nose) most commonly affected.
After rewarming frostbite can be classified; however, initial classification often fails to provide...
Protect and immobilize frostbitten area during transport
Remove restrictive or wet garments
Avoid dry rewarming of the frostbitten limb if there is a likelihood of refreezing injur...
All but the most superficial cases should be admitted.
Lower admission threshold where risk of refreezing exists.
Immersion (trench) foot patients may be discharge...
Allowing freeze, thaw, refreeze cycle to occur
Failure to keep warm water bath between 40°C and 42°C during rewarming
Failure to address hypothermia or other systemic illne...
Gross EA, Moore JC. Using thrombolytics in frostbite injury. J Emerg Trauma Shock. 2012;5(3):267–271.
McIntosh SE, Hamonko M, Freer L, et al. Wilderness Medical Society pr...
991.0 Frostbite of face
991.1 Frostbite of hand
991.3 Frostbite of other and unspecified sites
991.2 Frostbite of foot
T33.09XA Superficial frostbite of other part of head, init encntr
Sign up for a 10-day FREE Trial now and receive full access to all content.