Hypokalemia, Pediatric

Onur Cil, MD, PhD and Elaine Ku, MD, MAS Reviewed 10/2018
 


BASICS

DESCRIPTION

  • Potassium (K+) is the major intracellular cation and is important for all electrical activities in the body.

  • Majority of K+ (98%) is located intracellularly and high intracellular K+ ...

DIAGNOSIS

HISTORY

  • Patients may present with fatigue, muscle weakness, paralysis, myalgia, muscle cramps, polyuria (due to impaired urine concentrating ability), polydipsia, and constipation.

  • Ask patient...

TREATMENT

GENERAL MEASURES

  • Hypokalemia can be life-threatening and management primarily depends on the etiology, severity of hypokalemia, ongoing losses, and presence of symptoms. In severe hypokalemia...

ONGOING CARE

FOLLOW-UP RECOMMENDATIONS

  • In children with mild hypokalemia and clear cause of hypokalemia (such as GI losses or medications), further follow-up is not needed once serum K+ levels return t...

ADDITIONAL READING

  • Gumz ML, Rabinowitz L, Wingo CS. An integrated view of potassium homeostasis. N Eng J Med.  2015;373(1):60–72. [View Abstract on OvidInsights]

  • Palmer BF. Regulation of potassium...

CODES

ICD9

255.1 Bartter’s syndrome 

ICD10

E26.81 Bartter’s syndrome 

SNOMED

  • 71275003 Pseudoprimary aldosteronism (disorder)

  • 700107006 Bartter syndrome antenatal type 1 (disorder)

  • 700109009 Bartter syndrome ...

FAQ

  • Q: Should I be worried that hypokalemia will recur?

  • A: In patients with hypokalemia due to vomiting and diarrhea the problem is usually resolved once vomiting/diarrhea is resolved. Hypokalemia can ...

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