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Adiponectin, a hormone secreted exclusively by adipose tissue, has an important role in the regulation of tissue inflammation and insulin sensitivity. Perturbations in adiponectin concentration have been associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Levels of the hormone are inversely correlated with body fat percentage in adults, whereas the association in infants and young children is more unclear.
Normal range: see Table 16.3.
Higher adiponectin levels are associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes across diverse populations, consistent with a dose–response relationship.
Twofold before a meal and decreases to trough levels within 1 hour after eating
More than twofold in hemodialysis patients
Type 2 diabetes mellitus
Obesity and metabolic syndrome
Adiponectin exerts some of its weight reduction effects via the brain. This is similar to the action of leptin, but the two hormones perform complementary actions and can have additive effects.
Due to its important cardiometabolic actions, adiponectin represents a biologic molecule worth being studied as a new emerging biomarker of disease and also as a target for pharmacologic treatments.