Amphetamines

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Subject: Amphetamines

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Definition

  • Sympathomimetic amines with central nervous system stimulant activity.

  • Other names: amphetamine (Adderall, Dexedrine, Benzedrine, “bennies”), methamphetamine (Desoxyn, “ice,” “speed,” “meth”), ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine; MDMA), 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA, MDE, “Eve”), pseudoephedrine (Sudafed), ephedrine, phentermine (Adipex), and methylphenidate (Ritalin).

  • Other psychotropic amines include 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine, p-methoxyamphetamine (PMA), and p-methoxymethamphetamine (PMMA). These are not generally detected in screening tests and may not be reported in confirmation tests unless specifically requested.

  • Other drugs that are metabolized to methamphetamine/amphetamine: benzphetamine, clobenzorex, famprofazone, fenethylline, and fenproporex.

Use

  • Appetite suppressants

  • Mood enhancers (psychotropics)

  • Treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

  • Nasal decongestants, bronchodilators

Limitations

  • Screen [urine]: immunoassay on automated chemistry analyzers

  • Screen [serum]: ELISA

    • Target analyte: d-amphetamine. Will not give positive results with l-amphetamine, l-methamphetamine, phenylpropanolamine, MDMA, MDE.

    • May produce positive results with MDA.

  • Confirmation [serum/urine]:

 
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