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Subject: Anticonvulsants

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  • Treatment of seizure disorders

  • Normal therapeutic levels: see Table 16.7

TABLE 16–7
Normal Therapeutic Levels of Anticonvulsants


  • Phenobarbital may be detected by immunoassay-based screening tests for barbiturates in urine and serum.

  • Immunoassay tests are available for semiquantitative analysis in serum of topiramate, valproic acid, phenytoin, phenobarbital (may demonstrate significant cross-reactivity with other barbiturates), and zonisamide.

  • Lamotrigine, breakdown products or artifacts of topiramate, carbamazepine, 10-OH-carbazepine, and phenytoin may be detected in general drug screens in urine or serum that utilize alkaline or weakly acidic liquid- or solid-phase extractions followed by gas chromatography or GC/MS analysis.

  • For the majority of anticonvulsants, specific tests are required.