Recipient(s) will receive an email with a link to 'Anticonvulsants' and will have access to the topic for 7 days.
(Optional message may have a maximum of 1000 characters.)
A compound used to prevent or treat seizures
Classic agents: carbamazepine (Tegretol), phenobarbital (Luminal), phenytoin (Dilantin), ethosuximide (Zarontin), valproic acid (Depakene, Depakote). Newer agents gabapentin (Neurontin), lamotrigine (Lamictal), oxcarbazepine (Trileptal), vigabatrin (Sabril), topiramate (Topamax), zonisamide (Zonegran)
Treatment of seizure disorders
Normal therapeutic levels: see Table 16.7
Phenobarbital may be detected by immunoassay-based screening tests for barbiturates in urine and serum.
Immunoassay tests are available for semiquantitative analysis in serum of topiramate, valproic acid, phenytoin, phenobarbital (may demonstrate significant cross-reactivity with other barbiturates), and zonisamide.
Lamotrigine, breakdown products or artifacts of topiramate, carbamazepine, 10-OH-carbazepine, and phenytoin may be detected in general drug screens in urine or serum that utilize alkaline or weakly acidic liquid- or solid-phase extractions followed by gas chromatography or GC/MS analysis.
For the majority of anticonvulsants, specific tests are required.