Glucose, Urine

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Subject: Glucose, Urine

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Definition

  • Detection of glucose on a semiquantitative urine dipstick or Clinitest tablets is an insensitive means of screening for type 2 diabetes. The high rate of false-negative results suggests that the urine dipstick is not adequate as a screening test. In addition, not all patients with glucosuria have diabetes. Glucosuria can occur with defects in renal tubular function, as seen in type 2 (proximal) renal tubular acidosis and in familial renal glucosuria, a genetic disorder associated with salt-wasting, polyuria, and volume depletion.

  • Normal range: see Table 16.37.

 
TABLE 16–37
Normal Values for Urine Glucose

Use

  • Aiding the evaluation of glucosuria and renal tubular defects

  • Management of DM

Interpretation

Increased In

  • Any cause of increased blood glucose

  • Endocrine disorders (DM, thyrotoxicosis, gigantism, acromegaly, Cushing syndrome)

  • Major trauma

  • Stroke

  • Myocardial infarction

  • Oral steroid therapy

  • Burns, infections

  • Pheochromocytoma

Decreased In

Limitations

  • Prolonged exposure of urine sample to room temperature lower glucose results due to microbial contamination and glycolysis.

  • Specific gravity >1.020 and increased pH cause reduced sensitivity and falsely low glucose levels.

 
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