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Subject: Glucose, Urine
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Detection of glucose on a semiquantitative urine dipstick or Clinitest tablets is an insensitive means of screening for type 2 diabetes. The high rate of false-negative results suggests that the urine dipstick is not adequate as a screening test. In addition, not all patients with glucosuria have diabetes. Glucosuria can occur with defects in renal tubular function, as seen in type 2 (proximal) renal tubular acidosis and in familial renal glucosuria, a genetic disorder associated with salt-wasting, polyuria, and volume depletion.
Normal range: see Table 16.37.
Aiding the evaluation of glucosuria and renal tubular defects
Management of DM
Any cause of increased blood glucose
Endocrine disorders (DM, thyrotoxicosis, gigantism, acromegaly, Cushing syndrome)
Oral steroid therapy
Treatment with ascorbic acid, levodopa, or mercurial diuretics
Prolonged exposure of urine sample to room temperature lower glucose results due to microbial contamination and glycolysis.
Specific gravity >1.020 and increased pH cause reduced sensitivity and falsely low glucose levels.