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Drugs that are capable of altering perception of reality, also known as psychotomimetic drugs. Although many drugs (e.g., anticholinergics, cocaine) can induce delusions and/or hallucinations, this class has the capacity to reliably induce states of altered perception, feeling, and thought.
Ketamine: 2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-(methyl-amino) cyclohexanone
Phencyclidine: PCP, 1-(1-phenylcyclohexyl) piperidine, angel dust, elephant tranquilizer, peace pill, Sherman, T
d-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD): 9,10-d-N,N-diethyl-6-methylergoline-8b-carboxamide, microdots, window pane
Normal range: ketamine: 500–2,000 ng/mL plasma [IV administration]; PCP/LSD: not available
Ketamine: induction of anesthesia
Phencyclidine: no current medical use in the United States; abused as a hallucinogen
LSD: no current medical use in the United States; abused as a hallucinogen
LSD unstable in light, elevated temperature, and alkaline conditions and may irreversibly adsorb to containers.
Screening: individual drug-specific tests required; immunoassay based on automated chemistry analyzers using blood/serum/urine
No tests currently available by immunoassay
TLC procedures have a high limit of detection of approximately 1,000 ng/mL.
See confirmation: readily detected with alkaline liquid–liquid or solid-phase extraction followed by gas chromatography or GC/MS analysis.
Tests available from multiple manufacturers
Limit of quantitation: 25 ng/mL [urine]; 2–10 ng/mL [blood/serum]
Little to no cross-reactivity with PCP metabolites and varying cross- reactivity (20–90%) with PCP analogs [e.g., TCP-1-(1-thiophenecyclohexyl) piperidine]
May cross react with dextromethorphan
Limit of quantitation: 0.5 ng/mL
Low (<20%) cross-reactivity with metabolites, no cross-reactivity with lysergic acid
Confirmation: chromatography based; sample pretreatment/extraction procedure often required
Target analyte: ketamine
Limit of quantitation: 25–50 ng/mL
Target analyte: PCP
Limit of quantitation: 10–50 ng/mL
Target analytes; d-LSD, hydroxy-LSD, 2-oxo-LSD, 2-oxo-3-hydroxy-LSD, N-desmethyl-LSD
Limit of quantitation: 0.5–2 ng/mL
Multiple identified and unidentified metabolites formed, resulting in a low confirmation rate for LSD of positive-screened specimens