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Subject: Lead (Pb)
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An element with four stable isotopes (204, 206, 207, and 208) found naturally in minerals; in man-made products such as paint, gasoline, cigarette smoke, solder in cans, and ceramics; and as a contaminant in soil and water.
Normal range: <10 μg/dL (<0.48 mmol/L).
Lead is malleable, ductile, and a poor conductor of electricity; therefore, it is used in building construction, bullets, lead–acid batteries, pewter, and radiation shields.
Refer to current local state or federal (CDC) guidelines regarding treatment at specific blood lead concentrations. Note that thresholds for treatment vary for adults, children, and pregnant women.
See discussion of lead poisoning in Chapter 14.
Whole blood free of clots.
Specimen must be collected using a procedure that minimizes environmental contamination.
Specimen container must be lead free.
POC testing devices:
One-step sample pretreatment
Limit of quantitation: 3–5 μg/dL
Results available in <5 minutes
Results may agree within ±20% ICP-MS
Target analyte: nonionized atomic lead
Limit of quantitation: 1 μg/dL
Target analyte: oxidized lead
Limit of quantitation: 1–2 μg/dL
Requires sample pretreatment
Inductively coupled plasma MS
Target analyte: ions at mass/charge ratio of natural isotopes of Pb
Limit of quantitation: <1 μg/dL