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Chronic Pain Management: An Evidence-Based Approach Reviewed 5/2014

Jennifer Reidy, MS, MD
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  • Epidemiology
  • Etiology and Pathophysiology
  • Risk Factors
  • General Prevention
  • Associated Conditions


  • History
  • Physical Exam
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Tests


  • General Measures
  • Medication (Drugs)
  • Surgery
  • Complementary and Alternative Medicine


  • Follow-Up Recommendations
  • Patient Education
  • Complications
The following is an excerpt....
  • Chronic pain is pain persisting beyond the time of normal tissue healing, usually >3 months.
  • Over time, neuroplastic changes in the CNS transform pain into a chronic disease itself. Pain levels can exceed observed pathology on exam or imaging.
  • Pain experience is inherently related to emotional, psychological, and cognitive factors.
  • An epidemic of undertreated pain coexists with an epidemic of prescription drug abuse in the US.
  • Use a systems-based practice to safely and effectively prescribe opioids when indicated for chronic nonmalignant pain.

Incidence is rising, but exact rate is unclear. The annual economic cost of chronic pain in the US is estimated at $560–635 billion (1)[A].


In the US, an estimated 100 million ...

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