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Alzheimer Disease

John P. Barrett, MD, MPH, MS, FAAFP, FACPM Reviewed 06/2020
 


BASICS

DESCRIPTION

  • Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia: 60–80% are afflicted with dementia.

  • AD is a progressive, irreversible, degenerative neurologic disease that results in neu...

DIAGNOSIS

Diagnosis of dementia is straightforward. Diagnosis of the specific dementia–type cause may not be straightforward and requires a thorough history, examination, cognitive testing, and potent...

TREATMENT

GENERAL MEASURES

  • Optimize treatment of risk factors and associated comorbid conditions (e.g., hearing and vision loss).

  • Assess environment for safety/security; avoid sudden changes to environm...

ONGOING CARE

FOLLOW-UP RECOMMENDATIONS

Patient Monitoring

  • Review all health conditions and medications, including over-the-counters, vitamins, and supplements.

  • Recommend:

    • Healthy lifestyle: exercise, nutr...

REFERENCES

1
Atri A. The Alzheimer’s disease clinical spectrum: diagnosis and management. Med Clin North Am.  2019;103(2):263–293.

ADDITIONAL READING

Bennett JM, Chekaluk E, Batchelor J. Cognitive tests and determining fitness to drive in dementia: a systematic review. J Am Geriatr Soc.  2016;64(9):1904–1917. 

SEE ALSO

Deliriu...

CODES

ICD10

  • G30 Alzheimer’s disease

  • G30.1 Alzheimer’s disease with late onset

  • G30.9 Alzheimer’s disease, unspecified

  • G31.84 Mild cognitive impairment, so stated

  • G30.0 Alzheimer’s disease with early onset

  • G3...

CLINICAL PEARLS

  • AD is very common, >32% in those >85 years, and greatly underdiagnosed.

  • Imaging not needed for diagnosis for typical AD

  • Early diagnosis allows advance care planning (e.g., advanced...

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