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Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Pediatric

Laura Novak, MD and Katherine Williams, MD Reviewed 06/2019
 


BASICS

DESCRIPTION

  • Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that manifests in early childhood characterized by distractibility, impulsivity, hyperactivity, and/o...

DIAGNOSIS

  • American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) guidelines recommend DSM-5 criteria to establish diagnosis (1)[C].

  • DSM-5 criteria for children <17 years: ≥6 inattention criteria and/or ≥6 hyperactivi...

TREATMENT

GENERAL MEASURES

  • Parent/school/patient education

  • Work closely with teacher.

  • Behavioral therapy/environmental changes

  • Regular physical activity 60 min/day

  • Mindfulness meditation may help stress an...

ONGOING CARE

FOLLOW-UP RECOMMENDATIONS

Patient Monitoring

  • Parent/teacher rating scales

  • Office visits to monitor side effects and efficacy: End points are improved grades, rating scales, family interactio...

REFERENCES

1
American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association; 2013. [View Abstract on OvidMedline]
2
Wolra...

ADDITIONAL READING

  • Felt BT, Biermann B, Christner JG, et al. Diagnosis and management of ADHD in children. Am Fam Physician.  2014;90(7):456–464. [View Abstract on OvidMedline]

  • Laforett DR, Murray...

CODES

ICD10

  • F90.9 Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, unspecified type

  • F90.0 Attn-defct hyperactivity disorder, predom inattentive type

  • F90.1 Attn-defct hyperactivity disorder, predom hyperactive t...

CLINICAL PEARLS

  • AAP recommends behavioral interventions for age 4 to 5 years and behavioral interventions plus stimulant medications as first-line treatment for age 6 to 17 years.

  • Children undergoing e...

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