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Bites, Animal and Human

Kathryn Samai, BCPS, PharmD and Brian J. Kimbrell, FACS, MD Reviewed 06/2022
 


BASICS

DESCRIPTION

  • Animal bite rates vary by species: dogs (60–90%), cats (5–20%), rodents (2–3%), humans (2–3%), and (rarely) other animals, including snakes.

  • System(s) affected: potentially any

Pediatr...

DIAGNOSIS

HISTORY

  • Detailed history of the incident (provoked or unprovoked), type/breed of animal, vaccine status, whereabouts of animal

  • Site of the bite

  • Geographic setting

  • Underlying medical history—part...

TREATMENT

GENERAL MEASURES

  • Complete and submit bite report per local policy.

  • Elevate the injured extremity to prevent swelling.

  • Contact local health department to determine rabies prevalence in biting sp...

ONGOING CARE

FOLLOW-UP RECOMMENDATIONS

Patient Monitoring

  • Recheck for infection in 24 to 48 hours.

  • Daily follow-up for infections to ensure resolution

  • Base revisions of antibiotic therapy on culture resul...

REFERENCES

1
Murphy J, Qaisi M. Management of Human and Animal Bites. Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am. 2021 Aug;33(3):373-380.
2
Stevens  DL, Bisno  AL, Chambers  HF, et al. Pr...

ADDITIONAL READING

  • Bula-Rudas FJ, Olcott JL. Human and animal bites. Pediatr Rev. 2018;39(10):490-500.

  • Jakeman M, Oxley JA, Owczarczak-Garstecka SC, et al. Pet...

SEE ALSO

Bartonella Infections; Cellulitis; Rabies; Snake Envenomation 

CODES

ICD10

  • S61.459A Open bite of unspecified hand, initial encounter

  • S01.85XA Open bite of other part of head, initial encounter

  • S20.97XA Other superficial bite of unspecified parts of thorax, initial e...

CLINICAL PEARLS

  • Dog bites are the most common form of animal bite.

  • Cleanse, débride, and culture if any signs of infection.

  • Antibiotic prophylaxis is recommended for human bites and high-risk wounds.

  • Con...

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