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Bronchiolitis

Dennis E. Hughes, DO, FAAFP, FACEP Reviewed 06/2020
 


BASICS

DESCRIPTION

  • Inflammation and obstruction of small airways and reactive airways generally affecting infants and young children—upper respiratory infection (URI) prodrome followed by increased res...

DIAGNOSIS

History and physical examination should be the basis for the diagnosis of bronchiolitis; ancillary testing only indicated if clinical picture is unclear (no single of group of tests confirma...

TREATMENT

The cornerstone of therapy is supportive to include upper airway suctioning, prevention of significant and prolonged hypoxia, and dehydration. The other interventions noted have historically...

ONGOING CARE

FOLLOW-UP RECOMMENDATIONS

Patient Monitoring

  • Hospitalization is usually required only if oxygen is a requirement or unable to feed/drink.

  • For a hospitalized patient, monitor as needed depend...

REFERENCES

1
Ralston SL, Lieberthal AS, Meissner HCet al. Clinical practice guideline: the diagnosis, management, and prevention of bronchiolitis. Pediatrics.  2014;134(5):e1474–e1502. [View Abstr...

ADDITIONAL READING

  • Freire G, Kuppermann N, Zemek Ret al; for Pediatric Emergency Research Networks (PERN). Predicting escalated care in infants with bronchiolitis. Pediatrics.  2018;142(3):pii: e...

CODES

ICD10

  • J21.9 Acute bronchiolitis, unspecified

  • J21.0 Acute bronchiolitis due to respiratory syncytial virus

  • J21.8 Acute bronchiolitis due to other specified organisms

  • J21.1 Acute bronchiolitis due to ...

CLINICAL PEARLS

  • Bronchiolitis is the leading cause of hospitalizations in infants and children—especially <3 months of age.

  • Diagnosis is a clinical one of children in the first 2 years of life, asso...

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