Skip to main content

Chronic Kidney Disease

Daniel Frasca, DO Reviewed 06/2020
 


BASICS

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is defined as structural or functional abnormalities of the kidney for ≥3 months, as determined by either pathologic abnormalities or markers of damage—including ab...

DIAGNOSIS

HISTORY

Patients with CKD stages 1 to 3 are usually asymptomatic; can present with 
  • Oliguria, nocturia, polyuria, hematuria, change in urinary frequency

  • Bone disease

  • Edema, HTN, dyspnea

  • Fatigue, ...

TREATMENT

GENERAL MEASURES

  • Lowering salt intake to <2 g/day of sodium in adults, unless contraindicated

  • Minimize radiocontrast exposure; prehydrate; N-acetylcysteine use is controversial. Avoid nephr...

ONGOING CARE

DIET

  • Avoid or limit processed foods.

  • Reduce dietary salt intake.

  • Nutritional consult for CKD diet

PATIENT EDUCATION

  • Annual influenza vaccine unless contraindicated

  • Polyvalent pneumococcal vacci...

REFERENCES

1
Moyer VA; for U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for chronic kidney disease: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med.  2012;157(8):567...

ADDITIONAL READING

Crawford-Faucher A, Huijon RM. Effects of altered dietary salt intake in patients with chronic kidney disease. Am Fam Physician.  2017;95(7):423–424. 

SEE ALSO

  • Hydronephrosis; Ne...

CODES

ICD10

  • N18.9 Chronic kidney disease, unspecified

  • Q63.9 Congenital malformation of kidney, unspecified

  • N18.3 Chronic kidney disease, stage 3 (moderate)

  • Q61.4 Renal dysplasia

  • Q61.8 Other cystic kidney d...

CLINICAL PEARLS

  • CKD is defined based on >3 months of kidney functional or structural abnormalities and classified based on GFR and albuminuria.

  • ACE-I and ARB are first line for HTN treatment in CKD ...

Subscribe to Access Full Content

Sign Up for a 10-Day Free Trial

Sign up for a 10-day FREE Trial now and receive full access to all content.

 
×