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Female Athlete Triad

Miranda Gordon-Zigel, MD and Rahul Kapur, MD, CAQSM Reviewed 06/2019


Syndrome of three interrelated clinical entities: low energy availability (EA) (with or without disordered eating [DE]), menstrual dysfunction (MD), and low bone mineral density (BMD) (1). Ther...


  • The female athlete triad is a clinical diagnosis based primarily on patient history; screening for the female athlete triad at annual sports physicals or during routine exams and acute visit...


  • The goal is to optimize nutritional status and treat maladaptive behavioral disorders (1),(3)[A].

  • A multidisciplinary team including a physician, registered dietitian, and behavioral health p...


  • Patients should have regular follow-up with a multidisciplinary treatment team (6)[A].

  • Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is effective for exercising women with DE and may be more benefici...


De Souza MJ, Nattiv A, Joy E, et al. 2014 Female Athlete Triad Coalition consensus statement on treatment and return to play of the female athlete triad: 1st International Conference held ...


Nattiv A, Loucks AB, Manore MM, et al. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. The female athlete triad. Med Sci Sports Exerc.  2007;39(10):1867–1882. [View Abstrac...



  • F50.9 Eating disorder, unspecified

  • N91.2 Amenorrhea, unspecified

  • R53.83 Other fatigue

  • M81.8 Other osteoporosis without current pathological fracture

  • M85.9 Disorder of bone density and structure...


  • The female athlete triad consists of low EA (with or without DE), MD, and low BMD. Athletes may exhibit varying degrees of dysfunction in any of these three areas. There is emerging re...

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