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Gynecomastia

Franklyn C. Babb, MD, FAAFP Reviewed 06/2018
 


BASICS

DESCRIPTION

  • Benign glandular proliferation of male breast tissue

  • Increase in estrogens relative to androgens leads to the development of gynecomastia.

  • Gynecomastia can be transient and represent t...

DIAGNOSIS

HISTORY

  • Inquire about duration of breast growth, increase in breast tissue size, and associated breast pain and discharge.

  • If suspicious of hypogonadism, ask about erectile dysfunction, muscle...

TREATMENT

GENERAL MEASURES

  • Gynecomastia usually regresses spontaneously within 6 months of onset. This is true even for adult males. Therefore, patients can be monitored for the first 6 months and trea...

ONGOING CARE

FOLLOW UP RECOMMENDATIONS

Patient Monitoring

  • Every 3 to 6 months for 24 months; consider medical therapy (i.e., tamoxifen) if severe, painful symptoms persist after 6 to 12 months and surge...

REFERENCES

1
Johnson RE, Murad MH. Gynecomastia: pathophysiology, evaluation, and management. Mayo Clin Proc.  2009;84(11): 1010–1015. [View Abstract on OvidMedline]
2
Boccardo F, Rubagotti A, Batt...

ADDITIONAL READING

  • Dickson G. Gynecomastia. Am Fam Physician.  2012;85(7):716–722. [View Abstract on OvidMedline]

  • Nuttall FQ, Warrier RS, Gannon MC. Gynecomastia and drugs: a critical evaluation ...

SEE ALSO

Algorithm: Gynecomastia 

CODES

ICD10

N62 Hypertrophy of breast 

ICD9

611.1 Hypertrophy of breast 

SNOMED

  • 4754008 Gynecomastia (disorder)

  • 237451004 Pubertal gynecomastia

  • 237449003 Drug-induced gynecomastia

  • 237450003 HCG-induced gyneco...

CLINICAL PEARLS

  • Gynecomastia can be transient and represents the normal physiologic changes in neonates or adolescents. However, gynecomastia presenting or persisting in adulthood is typically patholo...

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