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Hammer Toes

Neil Feldman, DPM Reviewed 06/2019
 


BASICS

Contraction deformities of the toes 

DESCRIPTION

  • Hammer toes include three distinct types of deformity.

    • Hammer toe (as defined) involves a plantar flexion deformity of the proximal interphalangeal...

DIAGNOSIS

History and physical exam are typically sufficient for diagnosis of hammer toes. Additional tests are available to exclude other conditions. 

HISTORY

  • Location, duration, severity, and rate of ...

TREATMENT

  • Goal of treatment is to relieve symptoms and help patients return to their normal activity level.

  • Surgical and nonsurgical interventions are available.

  • Mild and asymptomatic cases may not requ...

ONGOING CARE

FOLLOW-UP RECOMMENDATIONS

  • Obtain radiographs immediately following surgery or at the first postoperative visit; subsequent x-rays as needed

  • Full weight-bearing in a postoperative (surgical)...

REFERENCES

1
Shirzad K, Kiesau CD, DeOrio JK, et al. Lesser toe deformities. J Am Acad Orthop Surg.  2011;19(8):505–514. [View Abstract on OvidMedline]
2
Thomas JL, Blitch ELIV, Chaney DM, et al; an...

ADDITIONAL READING

  • Marx RC, Mizel MS. What’s new in foot and ankle surgery. J Bone Joint Surg Am.  2013;95(10):951–957. [View Abstract on OvidMedline]

  • Miller JM, Blacklidge DK, Ferdowsian V, et al...

CODES

ICD10

  • M20.40 Other hammer toe(s) (acquired), unspecified foot

  • M20.41 Other hammer toe(s) (acquired), right foot

  • M20.42 Other hammer toe(s) (acquired), left foot

  • Q66.89 Other specified congenital def...

CLINICAL PEARLS

  • Hammer toe is a plantar flexion deformity of the PIP joint. Claw toe and mallet toe are additional types of hammer toes.

  • Initial management of hammer toe deformity is conservative. Cons...

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