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Hammer Toes

Reviewed 06/2018
 


BASICS

Deformities of digits 2 to 5 (“lesser” digits) of the foot 

DESCRIPTION

  • Plantar flexion deformity of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint with varying degrees of hyperextension of the metatar...

DIAGNOSIS

History and physical exam are typically sufficient for diagnosis of hammer toes. Additional tests are available to exclude other conditions. 

HISTORY

  • Location, duration, severity, and rate of ...

TREATMENT

  • Goal of treatment is to relieve symptoms and help patients return to their normal activity level.

  • Surgical and nonsurgical interventions are available.

  • Mild cases may not require treatment.

GENERAL MEASURES

ONGOING CARE

FOLLOW UP RECOMMENDATIONS

  • Obtain radiographs immediately following surgery or at the first postoperative visit; subsequent x-rays as needed

  • Full weight-bearing in a postoperative (surgical)...

REFERENCES

1
Shiryzad K, Kiesau CD, DeOrio JK, et al. Lesser toe deformities. J Am Acad Orthop Surg.  2011;19(8):505–514. [View Abstract on OvidMedline]
2
Thomas JL, Blitch ELIV, Chaney DM, et al. ...

ADDITIONAL READING

  • Marx RC, Mizel MS. What’s new in foot and ankle surgery. J Bone Joint Surg Am.  2013;95(10):951–957. [View Abstract on OvidMedline]

  • Miller JM, Blacklidge DK, Ferdowsian V, et a...

SEE ALSO

Algorithm: Foot Pain 

CODES

ICD10

  • M20.40 Other hammer toe(s) (acquired), unspecified foot

  • M20.41 Other hammer toe(s) (acquired), right foot

  • M20.42 Other hammer toe(s) (acquired), left foot

  • Q66.89 Other specified congenital def...

CLINICAL PEARLS

  • Hammer toe is a plantar flexion deformity of the PIP joint.

  • Initial management of hammer toe deformity is conservative. Consider surgery if pain persists or the deformity worsens.

  • Proper...

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