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Hemorrhoids

Juan Qiu, MD, PhD Reviewed 06/2018
 


BASICS

DESCRIPTION

  • Varicosities of the hemorrhoidal venous plexus

  • External hemorrhoids

    • Located below the dentate line (painful)

    • Covered by squamous epithelium

  • Internal hemorrhoids

    • Located above the dent...

DIAGNOSIS

Diagnosis is typically straightforward through history and inspection of the perineum, rectal exam, and anoscopy. 

HISTORY

  • Internal/external hemorrhoids

    • Classically, bright red blood per rect...

TREATMENT

Prevention 
  • Fiber supplements

  • Stool softeners

  • Anal hygiene

GENERAL MEASURES

  • Hemorrhoids are a recurrent disease, even after surgical excision. Preventive measures should be continued indefinitely...

ONGOING CARE

FOLLOW UP RECOMMENDATIONS

  • Encourage physical fitness, weight management, and dietary compliance.

  • Avoid prolonged sitting and straining on the toilet.

Patient Monitoring

As needed, depending o...

REFERENCES

1
Hall JF. Modern management of hemorrhoidal disease. Gastroenterol Clin North Am.  2013;42(4):759–772. [View Abstract on OvidMedline]
2
Klein JW. Common anal problems. Med Clin North Am...

ADDITIONAL READING

  • Reese GE, von Roon AC, Tekkis PP. Haemorrhoids. BMJ Clin Evid.  2009;2009:0415. [View Abstract on OvidMedline]

  • Rivadeneira DE, Steele SR, Ternent C, et al; for Standards Practi...

SEE ALSO

Colon Cancer; Portal Hypertension; Rectal Cancer 

CODES

ICD10

  • K64.9 Unspecified hemorrhoids

  • K64.0 First degree hemorrhoids

  • K64.1 Second degree hemorrhoids

  • K64.2 Third degree hemorrhoids

  • K64.4 Residual hemorrhoidal skin tags

  • K64.8 Other hemorrhoids

  • K64.3 Fou...

CLINICAL PEARLS

  • Hemorrhoids are very common. Internal hemorrhoids are typically painless. External hemorrhoids are typically painful.

  • Anal hygiene and symptomatic pain relief are the treatments of choi...

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