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Hepatitis A

Marie L Borum, MD, EdD, MPH and Justin Paul Canakis, D.O. Reviewed 06/2022
 


BASICS

DESCRIPTION

Hepatitis A infections are caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV), a member of the Hepatovirus genus. This virus is one of the world's most common infections and primarily involves th...

DIAGNOSIS

HISTORY

  • Onset is often abrupt. Common initial symptoms include nausea, emesis and diarrhea, and headache.

  • Symptom severity increases with age.

  • Pediatric cases (<6 years) frequently asymptoma...

TREATMENT

GENERAL MEASURES

  • Maintain appropriate nutrition/hydration.

  • Avoid alcohol.

  • Universal precautions to prevent spread

  • Monitor coagulation defects, fluid, electrolytes, acid–base imbalance, hypoglyce...

ONGOING CARE

FOLLOW-UP RECOMMENDATIONS

Return to work/school 10 to 14 days after onset of symptoms with diligence to hygiene (patients remain infectious for up to 4 weeks from symptom onset). 

Patient Monitoring

REFERENCES

1
Abutaleb A, Kottilil, S. Hepatitis A: epidemiology, natural history, unusual clinical manifestations, and prevention. Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 2020;49(2):191–199.
2
Centers for Disease C...

ADDITIONAL READING

  • Langan RC, Goodbred AJ. Hepatitis A. Am Fam Physician. 2021 Oct 1;104(4):368-374.

  • Seto MT, Cheung KW, Hung IFN. Management of viral hepatiti...

SEE ALSO

  • Hepatitis B; Hepatitis C

  • Algorithms: Cirrhosis; Hyperbilirubinemia and Jaundice

CODES

ICD10

B15.9 Hepatitis A without hepatic coma 

SNOMED

  • 25102003 acute type A viral hepatitis (disorder)

  • 310875001 Hepatitis A - current infection (finding)

CLINICAL PEARLS

  • HAV vaccine is indicated for all children, travelers (particularly to endemic areas), those at elevated risk of disease, and patients with liver impairment.

  • Check HAV IgG in all HIV-pos...

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