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Measles (Rubeola)

Wail Yar, MD, MPH and Jason Chao, MD, MS Reviewed 06/2020
 


BASICS

DESCRIPTION

  • A highly communicable, acute viral illness characterized by an exanthematous maculopapular rash that begins at the head and spreads inferiorly to the trunk and extremities

  • Rash is pre...

DIAGNOSIS

HISTORY

  • Prodromal period: usually 2 to 3 days before rash (may be up to 8 days)

    • Fever

      • May begin 8 to 12 days after exposure; can persist until 2 to 3 days after rash onset

      • Temperature often >...

TREATMENT

GENERAL MEASURES

  • Place all patients with measles in respiratory isolation until 4 days after onset of rash; immunocompromised patients should be isolated for duration of illness.

  • Supportive th...

ONGOING CARE

FOLLOW-UP RECOMMENDATIONS

Signs of complications needing close follow-up: 
  • Difficulty breathing or noisy breathing

  • Changes in vision

  • Changes in behavior, confusion

  • Chest or abdominal pain

PATIENT EDUCATION

REFERENCES

1
Measles Cases and Outbreaks. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/measles/cases-outbreaks.html. Reviewed December 6, 2019. Accessed December 17, 2019.
2
Orenstein ...

ADDITIONAL READING

  • Drutz J. Measles. Pediatr Rev.  2016;37(5):220–221.

  • Moss WJ. Measles. Lancet.  2017;390(10111):2490–2502.

  • Papania MJ, Wallace GS, Rota PA, et al. Elimination of endemic meas...

CODES

ICD10

  • B05.9 Measles without complication

  • B05.2 Measles complicated by pneumonia

  • B05.89 Other measles complications

  • B05.81 Measles keratitis and keratoconjunctivitis

  • B05.3 Measles complicated by otiti...

CLINICAL PEARLS

  • There is no substantiated link between MMR vaccine and autism.

  • A single case of measles constitutes an outbreak; report suspected measles cases to state or local health departments imme...

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