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Metabolic Syndrome

Naomi Parrella, MD, FAAFP, Dipl. ABOM Reviewed 06/2020
 


BASICS

DESCRIPTION

  • Cluster of progressive metabolic abnormalities demonstrating insulin resistance, a proinflammatory, and prothrombotic state that manifest with at least three of:

    • Increased waist circu...

DIAGNOSIS

HISTORY

Identifying risk factors 
  • Family history of MetS, T2DM, and cardiovascular disease

  • Symptoms indicating cardiovascular disease or diabetes or PCOS

  • Comprehensive lifestyle history:

    • Diet, in...

TREATMENT

Primary therapeutic goal is to prevent or reduce obesity and risk factors. Aggressive lifestyle modification (diet and exercise) is considered first-line therapy and most clinically effectiv...

ONGOING CARE

FOLLOW-UP RECOMMENDATIONS

  • Regular exercise will improve all components of MetS. Cumulative small periods of exercise over the day provide significant health benefits. Encourage small incre...

REFERENCES

1
Paley CA, Johnson MI. Abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome: exercise as medicine? BMC Sports Sci Med Rehabil.  2018;10:7.
2
Mansoor N, Vinknes KJ, Veierød MB, et al. Effects of low-...

ADDITIONAL READING

Rosenzweig JL, Bakris GL, Berglund LF, et al. Primary prevention of ASCVD and T2DM in patients at metabolic risk: an endocrine society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol...

CODES

ICD10

E88.81 Metabolic syndrome 

ICD9

277.7 Dysmetabolic syndrome X 

SNOMED

237602007 metabolic syndrome X (disorder) 

CLINICAL PEARLS

  • Consider further evaluation for MetS when history and/or physical exam demonstrates findings consistent with sedentary lifestyle, sleep apnea, increasing WC, elevation of BP or treatme...

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