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Myocarditis

Reviewed 06/2018
 


BASICS

DESCRIPTION

  • Inflammatory disease of the myocardium. Viral infection is the most common cause. Other etiologies include infectious pathogens, autoimmune diseases, hypersensitivity reactions, syst...

DIAGNOSIS

The diagnosis of myocarditis is based on a combination of clinical, laboratory, and imaging findings (see “Diagnostic Tests & Interpretation”): 
  • Wide range of clinical presentations, from...

TREATMENT

  • Largely supportive, with specific treatment aimed at heart failure and underlying etiologies

  • Cardiac pacing for symptomatic AV blocks (Type II or III, i.e., Lyme disease, Chagas disease) (1)

  • A...

ONGOING CARE

FOLLOW-UP RECOMMENDATIONS

Regular follow up for at least 3 years due to possible recurrence 

DIET

Salt restriction with heart failure 

PATIENT EDUCATION

  • Most cases are expected to resolve with...

REFERENCES

1
Cooper LTJr. Myocarditis. N Engl J Med.  2009;360(15):1526–1538. [View Abstract on OvidMedline]
2
Ammirati E, Cipriani M, Lilliu M, et al. Survival and left ventricular function changes...

ADDITIONAL READING

  • Biesbrook PS, Beek AM, Germans T, et al. Diagnosis of myocarditis: current state and future prospectives. Int J Cardiol.  2015;191:211–219.

  • Yancy CW, Jessup M, Bozkurt B, et al....

CODES

ICD10

  • I51.4 Myocarditis, unspecified

  • B33.22 Viral myocarditis

  • I40.9 Acute myocarditis, unspecified

  • I40.0 Infective myocarditis

  • I40.8 Other acute myocarditis

  • I40.1 Isolated myocarditis

  • I01.2 Acute rheum...

CLINICAL PEARLS

  • Most patients recover with only supportive care. However, unresolved disease may lead to chronic DCM with a high risk of increased morbidity and mortality.

  • An EMB should be reserved for...

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