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Nosocomial Infections

Reviewed 06/2018
 


BASICS

DESCRIPTION

  • Health care–associated infections (HAIs)

  • Infection must not have been present or incubating on admission to a health care facility.

  • CDC categories:

    • Catheter-associated urinary tract inf...

DIAGNOSIS

Consistent with nature of infection 

HISTORY

  • Exposure to health care facility

  • Recent surgery/open wounds

  • History of invasive procedure

    • Urinary catheter placement

    • Indwelling vascular catheter

  • Recent...

TREATMENT

GENERAL MEASURES

  • Treat with appropriate antibiotics.

  • Order bundles improve adherence to sepsis guidelines and improves survival.

  • UTI: Remove urinary catheters.

  • CLABSI: Remove IV catheter.

  • C. diff...

ONGOING CARE

FOLLOW-UP RECOMMENDATIONS

Patient Monitoring

Risk for recurrence is generally low in immunocompetent patients. Manage underlying comorbidities (risk factors). 

PROGNOSIS

  • 99,000 deaths in 2002...

REFERENCES

1
Klevens RM, Edwards JR, Richards CLJr, et al. Estimating health care-associated infections and deaths in U.S. hospitals, 2002. Public Health Rep.  2007;122(2):160–166. [View Abstract ...

CODES

ICD10

  • T83.51XA Infect/inflm reaction due to indwell urinary catheter, init

  • T81.4XXA Infection following a procedure, initial encounter

  • J95.851 Ventilator associated pneumonia

  • T82.7XXA Infect/inflm r...

CLINICAL PEARLS

  • Nosocomial infections increase mortality, length of hospital stay, and cost of hospitalization.

  • Preventive efforts should address patient-specific and facility-related risk factors.

  • Prop...

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