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Oral Rehydration

Garrett W. Huck, MD Reviewed 06/2018
 


BASICS

DESCRIPTION

  • Oral rehydration therapy (ORT) is a clinically useful, cost-effective, and safe technique to treat mild and moderate dehydration from diarrheal illness.

  • ORT is as effective as IV hydr...

DIAGNOSIS

HISTORY

  • Vomiting: duration and amount

  • Diarrhea: duration and amount

  • Fever

  • Weight loss: amount

  • Frequency and volume of urination

  • Exposure to others with gastroenteritis

  • Travel

  • Recent antibiotic use

  • Pa...

TREATMENT

GENERAL MEASURES

  • The composition of oral rehydration solution (ORS) according to WHO and UNICEF recommendations:

    • Total osmolality: 245 mmol/L

    • Equimolar concentrations of glucose and Na

    • Glucose: ...

ONGOING CARE

FOLLOW-UP RECOMMENDATIONS

  • Primarily outpatient

  • Designed to be administered by family members

DIET

  • For breastfeeding infants, the mother should continue nursing.

  • For bottle-fed babies, there sh...

REFERENCES

1
Suh JS, Hahn WH, Cho BS. Recent advances of oral rehydration therapy (ORT). Electrolyte Blood Press.  2010;8(2):82–86.  [View Abstract]
2
Niescierenko M, Bachur R. Advances in pediatric...

ADDITIONAL READING

  • Hartling L, Bellemare S, Wiebe N, et al. Oral versus intravenous rehydration for treating dehydration due to gastroenteritis in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev.  2006;(3):...

CODES

ICD10

  • E86.0 Dehydration

  • A09 Infectious gastroenteritis and colitis, unspecified

  • K52.9 Noninfective gastroenteritis and colitis, unspecified

ICD9

  • 276.51 Dehydration

  • 009.0 Infectious colitis, enteritis,...

CLINICAL PEARLS

  • ORT is as effective as but less costly than IV hydration for mild and moderate dehydration.

  • ORT is underused in the developed world.

  • ORT should not be diluted.

  • The addition of ondansetron...

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