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Orbital Compartment Syndrome

Jordan I. Teitelbaum, DO Reviewed 06/2022
 


BASICS

DESCRIPTION

Sight-threatening emergency characterized by elevated intraorbital pressure, compromising blood flow to the optic nerve and globe and causing visual loss (1). With subacute and acut...

DIAGNOSIS

Made on a clinical basis from history, exam, and orbital imaging 

HISTORY

Key symptom: progressive visual impairment in setting of increased intraorbital pressure. Patient may also report: 
  • Acu...

TREATMENT

ALERT

In acute OCS, immediate lateral canthotomy and cantholysis are required to prevent impending blindness.

 

GENERAL MEASURES

  • Patients should avoid blowing the nose, Valsalva maneuver, or cou...

ONGOING CARE

PATIENT EDUCATION

Patients should immediately seek medical assistance if they have increased pain, proptosis, double vision, or blurry vision, which may signal worsening of disease or dise...

REFERENCES

1
Lima  V, Burt  B, Leibovitch  I, et al. Orbital compartment syndrome: the ophthalmic surgical emergency. Surv Ophthalmol.  2009;54(4):441–449. [View Abstract o...

CODES

ICD10

  • H40.059 Ocular hypertension, unspecified eye

  • H05.20 Unspecified exophthalmos

  • H05.239 Hemorrhage of unspecified orbit

  • H05.269 Pulsating exophthalmos, unspecified eye

  • H40.052 Ocular hypertension,...

CLINICAL PEARLS

  • OCS is an ophthalmologic emergency requiring immediate surgical treatment as delayed treatment may result in permanent blindness.

  • OCS is primarily a clinical diagnosis, although lab wor...

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