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Osteoporosis and Osteopenia

Caitlin A. Nicholson, MD and Rahul Kapur, MD, CAQSM Reviewed 06/2020
 


BASICS

DESCRIPTION

A skeletal disease characterized by low bone mass, deterioration of bone tissue, and disruption of bone architecture that leads to compromised bone strength and an increased risk of ...

DIAGNOSIS

HISTORY

  • Review modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors

  • Online FRAX tool: http://www.shef.ac.uk/FRAX/

  • Assess for commonly associated conditions.

PHYSICAL EXAM

  • Thoracic kyphosis, poor balance, de...

TREATMENT

  • Criteria for patients who benefit from treatment for their osteoporosis include:

    • All patients with a T-score ≤−2.5 with no risk factors

    • All postmenopausal women and men >50 years old who ha...

ONGOING CARE

FOLLOW-UP RECOMMENDATIONS

Patient Monitoring

  • Weight-bearing exercises such as walking, jogging, stair climbing, and tai chi have been shown to decrease falls and fracture risk.

  • Yearly height...

REFERENCES

1
Christenson ES, Jiang X, Kagan R, et al. Osteoporosis management in post-menopausal women. Minerva Ginecol.  2012;64(3):181–194.
2
US Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for osteo...

CODES

ICD10

  • M85.80 Other specified disorders of bone density and structure, unspecified site

  • M81.0 Age-related osteoporosis w/o current pathological fracture

  • M80.00XA Age-rel osteopor w current path frac...

CLINICAL PEARLS

  • Regular weight-bearing exercise from adolescence onward is recommended for prevention.

  • Screen all women ≥65 years of age with DEXA scans.

  • Premenopausal women with osteoporosis should be ...

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