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Retinopathy, Diabetic

Richard W Allinson, M.D. and Alyce D Alven, MS, OD Reviewed 06/2022
 


BASICS

DESCRIPTION

  • Noninflammatory retinal disorder characterized by retinal capillary closure and microaneurysms. Retinal ischemia leads to release of a vasoproliferative factor, stimulating neovascul...

DIAGNOSIS

PHYSICAL EXAM

  • Eye exam: measurement of visual acuity and documentation of the status of the iris, lens, vitreous, and fundus

  • NPDR (background)

    • Microaneurysms

    • Intraretinal hemorrhage

    • Lipid deposit...

TREATMENT

GENERAL MEASURES

  • The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) recommended that for most patients with T1DM with insulin-dependent DM, blood glucose levels should be as close to the non...

ONGOING CARE

FOLLOW-UP RECOMMENDATIONS

Patient Monitoring

Scheduled ophthalmologic eye exams 
  • Yearly follow-up if no retinopathy

  • Every 6 months with background DR

  • At least every 3 to 4 months with pre-PDR

  • E...

REFERENCES

1
UK Prospective Diabetes Study Group. Tight blood pressure control and risk of macrovascular and microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes: UKPDS 38. BMJ. 1998;317(7160):703-713.
2
Chian...

ADDITIONAL READING

Wells JA, Glassman AR, Ayala AR, et al; for Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network. Aflibercept, bevacizumab, or ranibizumab for diabetic macular edema: two-year ...

CODES

ICD10

  • E11.319 Type 2 diabetes mellitus with unspecified diabetic retinopathy without macular edema

  • E10.319 Type 1 diabetes mellitus with unspecified diabetic retinopathy without macular edema

  • E10.3...

CLINICAL PEARLS

  • Schedule yearly ophthalmologic eye exams.

  • Options for the treatment of diabetic macular edema include focal laser treatment, intravitreal triamcinolone, intravitreal ranibizumab, intrav...

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