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Retinopathy, Diabetic

Richard W. Allinson, MD Reviewed 06/2018
 


BASICS

DESCRIPTION

  • Noninflammatory retinal disorder characterized by retinal capillary closure and microaneurysms. Retinal ischemia leads to release of a vasoproliferative factor, stimulating neovascul...

DIAGNOSIS

HISTORY

Diabetic patients should be encouraged to have an annual ophthalmologic exam because early eye changes may be asymptomatic. 

PHYSICAL EXAM

  • Eye exam: measurement of visual acuity and doc...

TREATMENT

MEDICATION

  • Treatment with the angiotensin-receptor blocker candesartan has been shown to result in regression of DR in some patients.

  • Nutritional antioxidant intake of vitamins C and E and of ...

ONGOING CARE

FOLLOW UP RECOMMENDATIONS

Patient Monitoring

Scheduled ophthalmologic eye exams 
  • Yearly follow-up if no retinopathy

  • Every 6 months with background DR

  • At least every 3 to 4 months with pre-PDR

  • E...

REFERENCES

1
Wells JA, Glassman AR, Ayala AR, et al; and Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network. Aflibercept, bevacizumab, or ranibizumab for diabetic macular edema. N Engl J Med.  2015;37...

SEE ALSO

Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 

CODES

ICD10

  • E11.319 Type 2 diabetes mellitus with unspecified diabetic retinopathy without macular edema

  • E10.319 Type 1 diabetes mellitus with unspecified diabetic retinopathy without macular edema

  • E10.3...

CLINICAL PEARLS

Options for the treatment of diffuse macular edema include focal laser treatment, intravitreal triamcinolone, intravitreal ranibizumab, intravitreal bevacizumab, intravitreal afliberce...

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