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Sleep Apnea, Obstructive

Thomas J. Hansen, MD Reviewed 06/2022
 


BASICS

DESCRIPTION

  • Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is defined as repetitive episodes of cessation of airflow (apnea) through the nose and mouth during sleep due to obstruction at the level of the pharynx...

DIAGNOSIS

HISTORY

  • Elicit a complete history of daytime and nighttime symptoms. Symptoms can be insidious and may have been present for years.

  • Daytime symptoms

    • Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) or fatigu...

TREATMENT

  • Lifestyle modification is the most frequently recommended treatment for mild to moderate OSA. This includes weight loss, exercise, and avoidance of alcohol, smoking, and sedatives, especiall...

ONGOING CARE

Lifelong compliance with weight loss or CPAP is necessary for successful OSA treatment. 

DIET

Overweight and obese patients should be encouraged to lose weight, and all patients must avoid ...

REFERENCES

1
Myers  KA, Mrkobrada  M, Simel  DL. Does this patient have obstructive sleep apnea? The rational clinical examination systematic review. JAMA.  2013;310(7):731...

CODES

ICD10

  • G47.33 Obstructive sleep apnea (adult) (pediatric)

  • G47.30 Sleep apnea, unspecified

SNOMED

  • 78275009 Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

  • 230493001 Mixed sleep apnea

  • 1091000119108 Obstructive sleep ap...

CLINICAL PEARLS

  • OSA is characterized by repetitive episodes of apnea often terminating in a snort/gasp.

  • Laboratory PSG is the key to diagnosis.

  • CPAP is the most effective form of treatment for both mild...

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