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Typhoid Fever

Douglas W. MacPherson, MD, MSc–CTM, FRCPC Reviewed 06/2019
 


BASICS

  • A common enteric bacterial disease transmitted by ingestion of contaminated food or water

  • Most cases in the United States are imported from endemic areas of South or Southeast Asia and Latin Ame...

DIAGNOSIS

Assess clinical presentation and exposure history, including travel and exposures to S. typhi carriers. 

HISTORY

  • Travel history to an endemic region and exposure to contaminated food or water

  • E...

TREATMENT

  • Treatment of typhoid disease and chronic carrier states must be determined on an individual basis. Factors to consider include age, public health and occupational health risk (e.g., food han...

ONGOING CARE

FOLLOW-UP RECOMMENDATIONS

Bed rest initially and then activity as tolerated 

Patient Monitoring

See “General Measures.” 

DIET

NPO if abdominal symptoms are severe. With improvement, begin norm...

REFERENCES

1
Jackson BR, Iqbal S, Mahon B; for Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Updated recommendations for the use of typhoid vaccine—Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, United St...

ADDITIONAL READING

  • Antillón M, Bilcke J, Paltiel AD, et al. Cost-effectiveness analysis of typhoid conjugate vaccines in five endemic low- and middle-income settings. Vaccine.  2017;35(27):3506–3...

CODES

ICD10

  • A01.00 Typhoid fever, unspecified

  • Z22.0 Carrier of typhoid

  • A01.03 Typhoid pneumonia

  • A01.09 Typhoid fever with other complications

ICD9

  • 002.0 Typhoid fever

  • V02.1 Carrier or suspected carrier of ty...

CLINICAL PEARLS

  • Consider typhoid (along with malaria, dengue, and other travel-associated infections) in febrile travelers returning from endemic areas (Latin America, sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia).

  • ...

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