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Vitamin Deficiency

Michelle E. Szczepanik, MD and Christopher D. Meyering, DO Reviewed 06/2019
 


BASICS

DESCRIPTION

  • Vitamins are essential micronutrients required for normal metabolism, growth, and development.

  • Deficiencies are less common in the Western world, but certain populations are at increa...

DIAGNOSIS

HISTORY

  • Review dietary intake.

  • Decreased visual acuity or night blindness

  • Poor wound healing or easy bruising

  • Skin changes or new rash

  • Neuropathy

  • Abnormal food cravings (pica)

  • Osteomalacia or histo...

TREATMENT

Although vitamin D deficiency has been linked with worse cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and is associated with vascular dysfunction; arterial stiffening; left ventricular hypertrophy...

ONGOING CARE

DIET

Vitamins are best used by the body from food intake. Supplements should be used where it is not feasible to ingest the recommended amount of a particular vitamin. 

PATIENT EDUCATION

  • In ...

REFERENCES

1
Langan RC, Goodbred AJ. Vitamin B12 deficiency: recognition and management. Am Fam Physician.  2017;96(6):384–389. [View Abstract on OvidMedline]
2
U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. ...

ADDITIONAL READING

Tack J, Deloose E. Complications of bariatric surgery: dumping syndrome, reflux and vitamin deficiencies. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol.  2014;28(4):741–749. [View Abstract...

CODES

ICD10

  • E56.9 Vitamin deficiency, unspecified

  • E56.0 Deficiency of vitamin E

  • E55.9 Vitamin D deficiency, unspecified

  • E50.9 Vitamin A deficiency, unspecified

  • E53.9 Vitamin B deficiency, unspecified

  • E56.8 ...

CLINICAL PEARLS

  • Obtain a thorough dietary history when assessing for potential vitamin deficiencies.

  • Specifically ask patients about dietary supplement use.

  • The USPSTF recommends against daily vitamin D...

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