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Learning Disabilities, Pediatric

Monica Dowling, PhD and Jeffrey P. Brosco, MD, PhD Reviewed 10/2018



Learning disabilities (LD) are a group of disorders characterized by unexpected and sustained difficulties acquiring and applying academic skills, including reading accuracy, reading...


  • Many learning problems respond to appropriate educational interventions, regardless of specific etiology, and failure to respond to intervention is part of the diagnostic process for specifi...


  • Discourage a “wait and see” approach to decision making. Early intervention using evidence-based reading programs improves outcomes.

  • Begin evidence-based interventions as soon as problems are...


Children with LD require continued monitoring of academic progress. Even when the initial learning problems are resolved, later difficulties may arise in writing, note-taking, composition...


  • American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association; 2013. [View Abstract on OvidInsig...



  • 315.2 Other specific developmental learning difficulties

  • 315.00 Developmental reading disorder, unspecified

  • 315.1 Mathematics disorder

  • 315.09 Other specific developmental reading disorder

  • 315.02...


  • Q: What is the evidence that visual training will improve reading?

  • A: Despite anecdotal reports of value, there is strong evidence that visual dysfunction is not causal to reading disability; there...

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