Direct skull trauma
Inward bending of calvarium causes bleeding when dura separates from skull:
Middle meningeal artery is involved in bleed >50% of time.
Meningeal vein is involved ...
Altered or deteriorating LOC
LOC: 85% will have at some point in course:
Only 11–30% will have a lucid interval.
Nausea and vomiting: 40%
Many times the only clinical si...
Head-injured patients have 25% improved mortality when triaged to regional trauma centers.
Spinal immobilization is essential.
Ensure adequate oxygenation throughout transport:
All patients with CT abnormality or altered LOC should be admitted to ICU setting with frequent neurologic assessment.
Patients should have repeated CT exam in 12...
Blythe BJ, Bazarian JJ. Traumatic alterations in consciousness. Traumatic brain injury. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2010;28(3):571–597.
Chesnut RM. Care of central nervous syst...
852.40 Extradural hemorrhage following injury without mention of open intracranial wound, unspecified state of consciousness
852.41 Extradural hemorrhage following injury without mention of o...
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