Normal venous sinusoids of the distal rectum and proximal anal canal
Normal vascular cushions of anal canal that contribute to anal continence
Arteriovenous shunt system exists...
Painless, rectal bleeding with defecation
Blood on stool or toilet paper
Bright red blood drips into toilet bowel
Rectal discomfort or pressure
Severe pain if:
Conservative therapy for all patients:
Strangulated grade 4 hemorrhoids:
Surgical consult for prolapsed, thrombosed internal hemorrhoids
Severe anemia with bleeding hemorrhoids
Severe bleeding hemorrhoid...
Acheson AG, Scholefield JH. Management of hemorrhoids. BMJ. 2008;336(7640):380–383.
Kaider-Person O, Person B, Wexner SD. Hemorrhoidal disease. J Am Coll Surg. 2007;...
455.0 Internal hemorrhoids without mention of complication
455.3 External hemorrhoids without mention of complication
455.6 Unspecified hemorrhoids without mention of complication
Sign up for a 10-day FREE Trial now and receive full access to all content.