Pleural space contains 0.1–0.2 mL/kg (30 mL in an adult) of clear, low-protein fluid that facilitates movement of the pulmonary parenchyma within the thoracic space...
Small effusions are often asymptomatic.
Dyspnea, pleuritic chest pain, and/or cough
Tachypnea, hypoxia, decreased breath sounds, and/or dullness to percussion
High-flow oxygen for shortness of breath
Emergent thoracentesis for significant ...
Unknown cause of the effusion
Primary process requires hospitalization
Presence or suspected parapneumonic effusion or empyema
The most common causes of pleural effusion are CHF, pneumonia, and malignancy.
Identify and treat the underlying cause of the pleural effusion.
Bedside US can help characterize the e...
Blok B. Thoracentesis. In: Roberts JR, Hedges JR. Clinical Procedures in Emergency Medicine. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2009.
Gordon CE, Feller-Kopman D, Bal...
511.1 Pleurisy with effusion, with mention of a bacterial cause other than tuberculosis
511.9 Unspecified pleural effusion
511.89 Other specified forms of effusion, except tuberculous
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