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Lactation and Lactation Suppression

Roselyn Jan W. Clemente-Fuentes, MD, FAAFP, Maggie C. Wertz, MD and Amy Jimenez, BS, IBCLC, RLC Reviewed 06/2019
 


BASICS

DESCRIPTION

  • Lactation is the production and secretion of milk by the mammary glands for the purpose of providing infant nutrition.

  • Lactation suppression is carried out when the mother chooses not...

DIAGNOSIS

HISTORY

  • Presence of normal breast changes during pregnancy

  • Maternal risk factors for lactation

PHYSICAL EXAM

  • Inspect breasts for abnormal developments or inverted nipples.

  • Positioning of infant a...

TREATMENT

GENERAL MEASURES

  • During pregnancy:

    • No treatment is necessary, especially ointments, soaps, or exercises.

    • Inverted nipples can be everted with breast cups worn inside the brassiere for the las...

ONGOING CARE

FOLLOW-UP RECOMMENDATIONS

  • Exclusive breastfeeding until 6 months of life and continuing for a minimum of 12 months

  • Duration thereafter should be as long as is mutually desired by mother and...

REFERENCES

1
Chapman T, Pincombe J, Harris M. Antenatal breast expression: a critical review of the literature. Midwifery.  2013;29(3):203–210. [View Abstract on OvidMedline]
2
Oladapo OT, Fawole B....

ADDITIONAL READING

  • American Academy of Pediatrics, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. In: Schanler RJ, Krebs NF, Mass SB, eds. Breastfeeding Handbook for Physicians. Washington, DC:...

CODES

ICD10

  • Z39.1 Encounter for care and examination of lactating mother

  • O92.5 Suppressed lactation

  • O92.70 Unspecified disorders of lactation

  • O92.79 Other disorders of lactation

  • O92.3 Agalactia

ICD9

  • V24.1 Po...

CLINICAL PEARLS

  • Maternal vitamin D levels are commonly too low to allow for adequate vitamin D transfer into the milk; therefore, breastfed infants should receive vitamin D supplementation 400 IU dail...

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