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Metatarsus Adductus

Caitlin G. Waters, MD and J. Herbert Stevenson, MD Reviewed 06/2019
 


BASICS

DESCRIPTION

  • Metatarsus adductus (MA) is rotational lower limb abnormality and a common pediatric foot deformity in which the metatarsals are deviated medially on the cuneiform bone.

  • MA is thought...

DIAGNOSIS

HISTORY

If not appreciated on newborn or subsequent pediatric exams, parents often notice intoeing (also known as pigeon toeing) within the 1st year of life. 

PHYSICAL EXAM

  • Inspection

    • Medial d...

TREATMENT

GENERAL MEASURES

  • Flexible MA

    • 95% of cases resolve spontaneously. As such, no treatment is the mainstay of therapy (2)[B].

    • Treatments for flexible MA include:

      • Stretching: Parents are instruct...

ONGOING CARE

FOLLOW-UP RECOMMENDATIONS

  • Regular follow-up with pediatrician, orthopedic surgeon, or podiatrist is recommended.

  • Parental reassurance is key because this problem typically resolves within t...

REFERENCES

1
Rerucha CM, Dickison C, Baird DC, et al. Lower extremity abnormalities in children. Am Fam Physician.  2017;96(4):226–233. [View Abstract on OvidMedline]
2
Williams CM, James AM, Tran T...

ADDITIONAL READING

  • Berg EE. A reappraisal of metatarsus adductus and skewfoot. J Bone Joint Surg Am.  1986;68(8):1185–1196. [View Abstract on OvidMedline]

  • Dawoodi AI, Perera A. Radiological assess...

CODES

ICD10

Q66.22 Congenital metatarsus adductus 

ICD9

754.53 Metatarsus varus, congenital 

SNOMED

  • 23568008 Metatarsus adductus

  • 4852000 Metatarsus varus

  • 99701000119102 Acquired metatarsus adductus

  • 203589007 ...

CLINICAL PEARLS

  • MA is the most common newborn foot disorder and the most common cause of intoeing.

  • Special care should be taken to rule out more serious causes of intoeing such as clubfoot and skewfoot...

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