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Rectal Cancer

Adam B. Greenfest, MD and Marie Borum, MD, EdD, MPH Reviewed 06/2019
 


BASICS

DESCRIPTION

  • The rectum is the distal portion of the colon bound by the end of the sigmoid colon and the anal verge. A tumor whose distal margin is typically 12 to 15 cm from the anal verge measu...

DIAGNOSIS

HISTORY

  • Most patients with CRC are asymptomatic.

  • Microcytic anemia in men of any age and postmenopausal women is CRC until proven otherwise; evaluation must include diagnostic colonoscopy.

  • Symp...

TREATMENT

  • Data suggest multidisciplinary communication among providers of rectal cancer patients can improve cancer survival and prevent unnecessary investigation and interventions.

  • Proximal tumors are...

ONGOING CARE

FOLLOW-UP RECOMMENDATIONS

Patient Monitoring

  • Risk of recurrence is greatest in the first 2 to 4 years after treatment (4); 80% occur in first 2.5 years from date of surgery.

  • H&P, CEA eve...

REFERENCES

1
Siegel RL, Miller KD, Jemal A. Cancer statistics, 2018. CA Cancer J Clin.  2018;68(1):7–30. [View Abstract on OvidMedline]
2
Monson JR, Weiser MR, Buie WD, et al. Practice parameters fo...

CODES

ICD10

C20 Malignant neoplasm of rectum 

ICD9

  • 154.1 Malignant neoplasm of rectum

  • 209.17 Malignant carcinoid tumor of the rectum

  • 154.8 Malignant neoplasm of other sites of rectum, rectosigmoid junction...

CLINICAL PEARLS

  • Microcytic anemia in men and postmenopausal women is CRC until proven otherwise.

  • Colonoscopy offers ability for diagnosis of colon cancer and intervention if polyp is discovered.

  • Multidi...

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