Severe, local cold-related injury, resulting in freezing of soft tissue:
Superficial: partial or complete freeze of skin
Deep: involvement of skin and underlying tissue (may ...
Skin may appear erythematous and swollen, or waxy, white, yellow, or blue-purple.
Vesicles/blisters may be present.
Patients with superficial frostbite complain of numbness and pain ...
Avoid thawing until no further risk of refreezing.
Immerse affected part in 37–39°C (98.6–102°F) 2[C].
Remove wet clothing and protect from further cold injury.
Mild to moderate cases of both hypothermia and frostbite generally recover fully without complication.
Severe cases may lead to significant disability and death.
Cappaert TA, Stone JA, Castellani JW, et al. National Athletic Trainers’ Association position statement: environmental cold injuries. J Athl Train. 2008;43(6):640–658.
Hypothermia can occur even at moderate temperatures (50–65°F [10–18°C]) if wind, rain, sweat, or wet clothing lead to heat loss that is greater than metabolic heat production.
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