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Leptospirosis

Reviewed 06/2019
 


BASICS

DESCRIPTION

  • Zoonotic disease caused by Leptospira interrogans, a spirochete bacteria

  • Spread via contact with infected water; outbreaks common during increased rainfall or during floods

EPIDEMIOLOGY

DIAGNOSIS

  • Infection can result in four broad clinical manifestations:

    • Self-limiting influenza-like infection that resolves in 1 to 3 weeks

    • Weil disease with renal and/or hepatic injury

    • Aseptic meningit...

TREATMENT

GENERAL MEASURES

  • Although most cases are self-limited and there is no decrease in mortality with antimicrobial treatment, it is currently recommended to treat all cases with antibiotics (4)[C...

ONGOING CARE

FOLLOW-UP RECOMMENDATIONS

  • Continue to monitor for evidence of severe disease following resolution of febrile stage.

  • No indication for test of cure following treatment

Patient Monitoring

See “...

REFERENCES

1
World Health Organization. Human Leptospirosis: Guidance for Diagnosis, Surveillance and Control. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2003. [View Abstract on OvidMedline]
2
Vanas...

ADDITIONAL READING

  • Dunay S, Bass J, Stremick J. Leptospirosis: a global health burden in review. Emerg Med.  2016;6:336. [View Abstract on OvidMedline]

  • Hartskeerl RA, Collares-Pereira M, Ellis WA....

CODES

ICD10

  • A27 Leptospirosis

  • A27.8 Other forms of leptospirosis

  • A27.89 Other forms of leptospirosis

  • A27.9 Leptospirosis

  • A27.0 Leptospirosis icterohemorrhagica

  • A27.81 Aseptic meningitis in leptospirosis

ICD9

  • ...

CLINICAL PEARLS

  • Consider leptospirosis in patients with fresh water exposure who develop fevers, conjunctival suffusion, and/or cough.

  • Although rapid tests are being developed, MAT remains the gold sta...

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